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Herbchronology Dating methods in archaeology[ edit ] Same as geologists or paleontologists , archaeologists are also brought to determine the age of ancient materials, but in their case the areas of their studies are restricted to the history of both ancient and recent humans. Thus, to be considered as archaeological, the remains, objects or artifacts to be dated must be related to human activity. It is commonly assumed that if the remains or elements to be dated are older than the human species, the disciplines which study them are sciences such geology or paleontology, among some others. Nevertheless, the range of time within archaeological dating can be enormous compared to the average lifespan of a singular human being. As an example Pinnacle Point ‘s caves, in the southern coast of South Africa , provided evidence that marine resources shellfish have been regularly exploited by humans as of , years ago. It was the case of an 18th-century sloop whose excavation was led in South Carolina United States in Dating material drawn from the archaeological record can be made by a direct study of an artifact , or may be deduced by association with materials found in the context the item is drawn from or inferred by its point of discovery in the sequence relative to datable contexts. Dating is carried out mainly post excavation , but to support good practice, some preliminary dating work called ” spot dating ” is usually run in tandem with excavation. Dating is very important in archaeology for constructing models of the past, as it relies on the integrity of dateable objects and samples. Many disciplines of archaeological science are concerned with dating evidence, but in practice several different dating techniques must be applied in some circumstances, thus dating evidence for much of an archaeological sequence recorded during excavation requires matching information from known absolute or some associated steps, with a careful study of stratigraphic relationships.

The Lost City of Jesus’ Apostles Has Just Been Found, Archaeologists Say

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A quick search on the internet also turned up an excellent article on Hostetter’s on the Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors site at the following URL:

The area, located at the southern end of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, has historically been prone to damaging storms and flooding, but now, melting sea ice is resulting in larger waves and has left the shoreline more vulnerable to storm surges. Land once held firm by permafrost has softened and is now easily eaten away by the tides, with the result that anything previously embedded in the permafrost is released. Around , carved wooden objects started washing up on the beach near Quinhagak, and the source seemed to be a site several miles to the south known to have once been inhabited.

Artifacts of their past were in danger of being lost forever, and they believed that if these objects could be recovered, younger, culturally adrift members of the community might forge a deeper connection with their heritage. So they called in Rick Knecht, an archaeologist at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland, who has extensive experience excavating in Alaska, to examine the threatened site. We followed the tide line and saw more and more evidence of wooden artifacts.

A couple miles down the beach, we could see where they were coming from. Knecht could tell that large chunks of earth had calved off, and big, grassy clumps could be seen on the beach with artifacts essentially pouring out of them. Since , Knecht has led an excavation team there for up to six weeks each summer. Hundreds of wooden dolls, from simple flat sticks to three-dimensional carvings, and a number of wooden masks, some large enough for use in a masked dancing ritual and some small enough that they appear to have been designed for use as playthings with the dolls, have been found.

The qasgiq served as a workshop, where kayaks, hunting bows, and other tools were built and repaired, and as an instructional space, where elders shared oral traditions with the young and taught them how to hunt. It was also used as a community center, where gatherings and ritual events were held.

STONEHENGE LATEST NEWS

The splendor of the natural setting here must have reminded the Nabataeans of their capital, Petra, hewn into the rosey sandstone cliffs to the north in modern-day Jordan. It is no wonder that they chose this very spot to build their second city, Hegra. The Nabataeans began as pastoral nomads, raising their sheep, goats, and camels in the desert as so many other Arabian tribes have done through the millennia.

There, 19 human hand- and footprints are embedded in a unique formation of travertine limestone created in the remains of ancient hot springs.

READ MORE History of archaeology No doubt there have always been people who were interested in the material remains of the past, but archaeology as a discipline has its earliest origins in 15th- and 16th-century Europe , when the Renaissance Humanists looked back upon the glories of Greece and Rome. Popes, cardinals, and noblemen in Italy in the 16th century began to collect antiquities and to sponsor excavations to find more works of ancient art. These collectors were imitated by others in northern Europe who were similarly interested in antique culture.

All this activity, however, was still not archaeology in the strict sense. It was more like what would be called art collecting today. The Mediterranean and the Middle East Archaeology proper began with an interest in the Greeks and Romans and first developed in 18th-century Italy with the excavations of the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Classical archaeology was established on a more scientific basis by the work of Heinrich Schliemann , who investigated the origins of Greek civilization at Troy and Mycenae in the s; of M.

Archæology of the Cross and Crucifix

Everything Worth Knowing About Scientific Dating Methods This dating scene is dead. The good dates are confirmed using at least two different methods, ideally involving multiple independent labs for each method to cross-check results. Sometimes only one method is possible, reducing the confidence researchers have in the results. Methods fall into one of two categories: These methods — some of which are still used today — provide only an approximate spot within a previously established sequence:

The famous painted and engraved Upper Paleolithic cave of Lascaux in southern France was discovered by chance in when four French schoolboys decided to investigate a hole left by an uprooted tree.

They are cold, dry, and oxygen-poor. They were the last places humans settled—yet people did it and they survived. For archaeologist Mark Aldenderfer of the University of California, Merced, a fundamental trait of humanity is our ability to adapt, especially to extreme environments. From the Himalayas to the Andes to the Ethiopian Plateau, people have evolved in ways that allow them to live at high altitude. Political turmoil cut his research short, and it became impossible to go back.

A short while later, he took a research position high in the Peruvian Andes, studying early hunter-gatherers. Aldenderfer realized he had stumbled into a niche of untapped archaeological research on early human adaptation to high-elevation environments. Working at such heights can be excruciating. It occurs when people accustomed to living at lower altitudes climb above 8, feet, and it can be dangerous and lead to pulmonary edema, stroke, and even death.

Nevertheless, people have successfully settled at these altitudes for millennia—perhaps 7, years or more.

The Beer Archaeologist

As of [update] , 32, of the city’s households had people who were not in the labour force , with 23, of these retired. Also headquartered in the city is the Histadrut trade union. Ramat Gan is also an important center for industry and manufacturing with major fruit and vegetable canning plants, textile mills, metal production plants, electrical manufacturers, furniture makers, and food producers based here.

As a tribute to the history of the site, the lower floors of the tower will house a chocolate museum. The make up of the city’s 25 seat City Council until the election was: The city has 32 medical centers run by health authorities and 10 child-care clinics operated by the municipality.

But attributing their objections entirely to ego is too easy and only perpetuates the personal rivalries that have dogged this topic for decades.

Olympia Archaeological Site The ancient stadium at Olympia. It is is positioned in a serene and rich valley at the confluence of the Alpheios and the Kladeos rivers. In antiquity it was famous beyond the borders of mainland Greece for hosting the Olympic Games every four years, starting in BCE. The archaeological site is located withing walking distance of the modern village called Ancient Olympia and it includes ruins from Bronze Age to the Byzantine eras.

The site covers an expanded area of ruins scattered among low trees, as well as the ancient stadium where the Olympics took place. An impressive array of artifacts which were unearthed during excavations are on exhibition at the nearby Olympia Museum. Most are located near the Temple of Hera. The Palaistra was the training ground for athletes who competed in the wrestling events. It also served as the athletes’ living quarters during training.

It was built in the Hellenistic Era. By , the ruins were dressed with restored marble second photo. This photo shows the monument as it was restored by The ruins of the Nymphaion–a fresh water fountain. It was erected in CE by Herodus Atticus to be the terminal of a newly constructed aqueduct.

Çatalhöyük ‘Map’ Mural May Depict Volcanic Eruption 8,900 Years Ago

Archeological research, as generally practiced, shares with the rest of anthropology and the other social sciences a concern for the recurrent, patterned aspects of human behavior rather than with the isolation of the unique. It is historical in the sense that it deals with human behavior viewed through time and supplements written sources with the documentation provided by artifactual evidence from the past.

During the century or so of its existence as a recognizable scholarly discipline, archeology has come more and more to apply scientific procedures to the collection and analysis of its data, even when its subject matter could be considered humanistic as well as scientific.

BBC Timewatch have been following the project.

And what about the dried doum-palm fruit, which has been giving off a worrisome fungusy scent ever since it was dropped in a brandy snifter of hot water and sampled as a tea? At last, Patrick McGovern, a year-old archaeologist, wanders into the little pub, an oddity among the hip young brewers in their sweat shirts and flannel. Proper to the point of primness, the University of Pennsylvania adjunct professor sports a crisp polo shirt, pressed khakis and well-tended loafers; his wire spectacles peek out from a blizzard of white hair and beard.

But Calagione, grinning broadly, greets the dignified visitor like a treasured drinking buddy. Which, in a sense, he is. The truest alcohol enthusiasts will try almost anything to conjure the libations of old. Other guidelines came from the even more ancient Wadi Kubbaniya, an 18, year-old site in Upper Egypt where starch-dusted stones, probably used for grinding sorghum or bulrush, were found with the remains of doum-palm fruit and chamomile.

The brewers also went so far as to harvest a local yeast, which might be descended from ancient varieties many commercial beers are made with manufactured cultures. They left sugar-filled petri dishes out overnight at a remote Egyptian date farm, to capture wild airborne yeast cells, then mailed the samples to a Belgian lab, where the organisms were isolated and grown in large quantities. Back at Dogfish Head, the tea of ingredients now inexplicably smacks of pineapple.

The spices are dumped into a stainless steel kettle to stew with barley sugars and hops. It was beer for pay. The wort, or unfermented beer, emerges a pretty palomino color; the brewers add flasks of the yellowish, murky-looking Egyptian yeast and fermentation begins. They plan on making just seven kegs of the experimental beverage, to be unveiled in New York City two weeks later.

Olympia Archaeological Site

In John Dominic Crossan published a bombshell of a book, The Historical Jesus, in which he put forward the theory that the real Jesus was a wandering sage whose countercultural lifestyle and subversive sayings bore striking parallels to the Cynics. These peripatetic philosophers of ancient Greece, while not cynical in the modern sense of the word, thumbed their unwashed noses at social conventions such as cleanliness and the pursuit of wealth and status.

On a brilliant spring day after rains have left the Galilean hills awash with wildflowers, I hike around the ruins of Sepphoris with Eric and Carol Meyers, the Duke University archaeologists I consulted at the start of my odyssey. The husband-and-wife team spent 33 years excavating the sprawling site, which became the nexus of a heated academic debate about the Jewishness of Galilee and, by extension, of Jesus himself. Eric Meyers, lanky and white-haired, pauses in front of a pile of columns.

He stops at the top of a hill and waves his hands across a sprawl of neatly excavated walls.

Over the years, Blackhammer Cairn has become badly damaged, although a modern roof has been added to protect the site, which is only 13 metres in length.

It reveals many more axe carvings and much new information on how the stones were shaped. The analysis found 71 new axehead carvings, increasing the number known at Stonehenge to This is around a years after the big sarsen stone circle was erected. Contrary to press reports, Stonehenge was not a huge art gallery – these carvings are found only on four stones.

The scanning has also revealed incredible detail on how the stones were shaped. Some were “pecked” with stone mauls in horizontal lines, others with vertical lines. The study, just published online by English Heritage and free to download, also provides information on how much damage has been caused by souvenir hunters chipping off bits of stone, or by visitors carving graffiti – including Sir Christopher Wren, the architect of 17th century London! Download the full report here: Using the latest geophysical imaging techniques, which “see” below the ground without excavation, it is possible to make out a dark circle of interrupted ditch.

There are two wider gaps opposite each other – these were entrances to the monument and are aligned on the midwinter sunset and midsummer sunrise – like Stonehenge itself. Inside the ditch it is also possible to discern the slight shadows of 24 postholes encircling the the central area, 25 metres in diameter. Near the centre are more dark areas indicating pits, and a large shadow suggesting that a mound was constructed there, perhaps in a later phase of the monument’s use.

The henge probably dates to around BC, contemporary with Stonehenge.

Chronological dating

Transport History and Archaeology – be inspired to discover over 5, years of history Rousay is home to over archaeological sites, dating back to thousands of years ago. And they are all completely FREE to visit! But with so many interesting historical and archaeological sites here, we’ve provided in-depth information about the most important sites for you to explore. Westness Heritage Walk The most impressive of the archaeological sites can be found along the most important archaeological mile in Scotland, which covers thousands of years of history in just one mile-long rough coastal path, known as the Westness Heritage Walk.

This amazing trail takes you on a journey through the first Stone Age settlers from over 5, years ago , to the Pictish Iron Age, the Viking invaders, the time of the Earls, and the crofting clearances of the early s.

In these last instances it is common to see the cross surmounted by the monogram and surrounded by a laurel wreath e.

As we see history’s graveyard, it’s like viewing the tombstone of an empire. How many people saw the powerful Nineveh gates as a part of their daily scenery? The gates were just always there, part of the skyline, taken for granted, testifying to the King’s authority and glory. What was it like for the rulers? They enjoyed that eternal feeling that we all have while we are young and strong. Living in grandeur and exercising power over a kingdom of peoples they enjoyed all that life could provide.

King Sennacherib would have moved through these gates on his way to confront the humble nation of Judah and King Hezekiah who Sennacherib said he had trapped in Jerusalem like a “caged bird”. Little did he know that he alone would be confronted by God Himself!

Relative and Absolute Dating


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