How old is the earth? First published in Refuting Evolution , Chapter 8 Evolutionists fallaciously think that billions of years of time makes particles-to-people evolution possible. So Teaching about Evolution and the Nature of Science presents what it claims is evidence for vast time spans. This is graphically illustrated in a chart on pages 36— The Bible states that man was made six days after creation, about 6, years ago. So a time-line of the world constructed on biblical data would have man almost at the beginning, not the end.
How Old is the Earth
See this page in: Hungarian , Russian , Spanish People who ask about carbon 14C dating usually want to know about the radiometric  dating methods that are claimed to give millions and billions of years—carbon dating can only give thousands of years. People wonder how millions of years could be squeezed into the biblical account of history.
Clearly, such huge time periods cannot be fitted into the Bible without compromising what the Bible says about the goodness of God and the origin of sin, death and suffering —the reason Jesus came into the world See Six Days? Christians , by definition, take the statements of Jesus Christ seriously.
It seems like the time has run out for nuclides that break down rapidly.
The eruption may have caused this 1, year period of cooler temperatures stadial , two centuries of which could be accounted for by the persistence of the Toba stratospheric loading. The climate recovered over a few decades, and Robock found no evidence that the 1, year cold period seen in Greenland ice core records had resulted from the Toba eruption.
They concluded that the largest known volcanic eruption in the history of the human species did not significantly alter the climate of East Africa,   attracting criticism from Richard Roberts. For example, a year volcanic winter triggered by the eruption could have largely destroyed the food sources of humans and caused a severe reduction in population sizes. Therefore, the genetic differences among modern humans may reflect changes within the last 70, years, rather than gradual differentiation over hundreds of thousands of years.
For example, ancient stone tools in southern India were found above and below a thick layer of ash from the Toba eruption and were very similar across these layers, suggesting that the dust clouds from the eruption did not wipe out this local population. The populations of the Eastern African chimpanzee ,  Bornean orangutan ,  central Indian macaque ,  the cheetah , the tiger ,  and the separation of the nuclear gene pools of eastern and western lowland gorillas ,  all recovered from very low numbers around 70, —55, years ago.
Migration after Toba[ edit ] The exact geographic distribution of human populations at the time of the eruption is not known, and surviving populations may have lived in Africa and subsequently migrated to other parts of the world. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA have estimated that the major migration from Africa occurred 60, —70, years ago,  consistent with dating of the Toba eruption to around 75, years ago.
However, archeological finds in have suggested that a hominid population, probably modern Homo sapiens, survived in Jwalapuram , Southern India.
Toba catastrophe theory
View images by clicking on link or reduced image: Each image opens into a new window. These primitive, medium sized apes lived in rain forests between 18 and 22 million years ago. This species and others such as Dryopithecus existed before the hominid line diverged on the path to humans.
To solve this problem, researchers are developing new instruments in which a small amount of material can be evaporated from the surface with a pulse of energy and ionized with a pulse of laser light.
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.
We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points. Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate.
However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old.
How Long Does It Take for Wood to Petrify?
Space-filling model of argon fluorohydride Argon’s complete octet of electrons indicates full s and p subshells. This full valence shell makes argon very stable and extremely resistant to bonding with other elements. Before , argon and the other noble gases were considered to be chemically inert and unable to form compounds; however, compounds of the heavier noble gases have since been synthesized. The first argon compound with tungsten pentacarbonyl, W CO 5Ar, was isolated in However it was not widely recognised at that time.
This discovery caused the recognition that argon could form weakly bound compounds, even though it was not the first.
Techniques that give results that can be dismissed just because they don’t agree with what we already believe cannot be considered objective.
These are K-Ar data obtained on glauconite, a potassium-bearing clay mineral that forms in some marine sediment. Woodmorappe fails to mention, however, that these data were obtained as part of a controlled experiment to test, on samples of known age, the applicability of the K-Ar method to glauconite and to illite, another clay mineral.
He also neglects to mention that most of the 89 K-Ar ages reported in their study agree very well with the expected ages. Evernden and others 43 found that these clay minerals are extremely susceptible to argon loss when heated even slightly, such as occurs when sedimentary rocks are deeply buried. As a result, glauconite is used for dating only with extreme caution.
The ages from the Coast Range batholith in Alaska Table 2 are referenced by Woodmorappe to a report by Lanphere and others Whereas Lanphere and his colleagues referred to these two K-Ar ages of and million years, the ages are actually from another report and were obtained from samples collected at two localities in Canada, not Alaska. There is nothing wrong with these ages; they are consistent with the known geologic relations and represent the crystallization ages of the Canadian samples.
The Liberian example Table 2 is from a report by Dalrymple and others
Everything Worth Knowing About … Scientific Dating Methods
After mating, the female then builds a nest elsewhere to raise the young alone. Franco Atirador Stephen J. Gould argued that these enormous antlers, which required great mineral resources from plants to support and prevented the elk from navigating through forests, were largely responsible for their extinction. The positioning of the antlers were poor for combat between males, but were great for intimidating rivals and impressing females.
Cook , Prehistory and Earth Models London:
I’ve listened as many people have protested the Biblical doctrine of the young earth. The earth must be old. Wood can be petrified by two basic processes, both of which usually involve burial in volcanic ash. This ash decomposes in the presence of water, enriching the groundwater with silica. In the first type of petrification, the wood decays in a hot, silica-rich environment. As each molecule of wood decomposes and is carried away, it is replaced by a molecule of silica.
Scientific dating has confirmed the long residence of Aboriginal people in Australia. A number of methods are used, all of which have their advantages, limitations and level of accuracy. Complex dating problems often use a variety of techniques and information to arrive at the best answer. Artefacts and other materials can be dated in relative terms by observing which layer of sediments they are found in.
This applies the geological principle that under normal circumstances younger layers of sediment will be deposited on top of older layers.
Also, the diffusion of argon in cracks and channels of a mineral is likely much less temperature-dependent than diffusion through unbroken regions of the mineral, since diffusion through cracks and channels simply involves jumps through the air.
Everything Worth Knowing About Scientific Dating Methods This dating scene is dead. The good dates are confirmed using at least two different methods, ideally involving multiple independent labs for each method to cross-check results. Sometimes only one method is possible, reducing the confidence researchers have in the results. Methods fall into one of two categories: These methods — some of which are still used today — provide only an approximate spot within a previously established sequence: Think of it as ordering rather than dating.
One of the first and most basic scientific dating methods is also one of the easiest to understand. Paleontologists still commonly use biostratigraphy to date fossils, often in combination with paleomagnetism and tephrochronology. A submethod within biostratigraphy is faunal association: Sometimes researchers can determine a rough age for a fossil based on established ages of other fauna from the same layer — especially microfauna, which evolve faster, creating shorter spans in the fossil record for each species.
The polarity is recorded by the orientation of magnetic crystals in specific kinds of rock, and researchers have established a timeline of normal and reversed periods of polarity. Paleomagnetism is often used as a rough check of results from another dating method.
Click on the Icon or the text link. March 5, The Time of Trouble and the Mark of the Beast Satan will try to rule the world and force all people to obey and worship him and also to take the Mark of the Beast; But God’s people will be loyal to God rather than Satan. The Mark of the Beast is a sign of Satan’s ownership over the world. Yes, Satan is soon to rule the world and he will try to force all people to obey and worship him and to take the Mark of the Beast either on their forehead or their right hand.
In today’s world the turmoil seems to be based on secular issues. But that will soon change and Satan’s strategy can be understood from the Bible itself.
Now, several factors need to be considered when evaluating how often methods give expected ages on the geologic column.
Manicouagan crater, Quebec, Canada is visible in the background. Exhumed paleoplains of the Precambrian shield of North America. American Journal of Science, , — The viscous flow behavior of diaplectic glass and fusion-formed glass: A Comparitive study on shocked anorthosite from Manicouagan crater, Canada. Diaplectic glass and fusion-formed glass: Comparative studies on shocked anorthosite from Manicouagan crater, Canada.
At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4.
First published in Refuting Evolution , Chapter 8 Evolutionists fallaciously think that billions of years of time makes particles-to-people evolution possible.
The isochron method Many radioactive dating methods are based on minute additions of daughter products to a rock or mineral in which a considerable amount of daughter-type isotopes already exists. These isotopes did not come from radioactive decay in the system but rather formed during the original creation of the elements. In this case, it is a big advantage to present the data in a form in which the abundance of both the parent and daughter isotopes are given with respect to the abundance of the initial background daughter.
The incremental additions of the daughter type can then be viewed in proportion to the abundance of parent atoms. In mathematical terms this is achieved as follows. This term, shown in Figure 1, is called the initial ratio. The slope is proportional to the geologic age of the system. In practice, the isochron approach has many inherent advantages. When a single body of liquid rock crystallizes, parent and daughter elements may separate so that, once solid, the isotopic data would define a series of points, such as those shown as open circles designated R1, R2, R3 in Figure 1.
With time each would then develop additional daughter abundances in proportion to the amount of parent present. If a number of samples are analyzed and the results are shown to define a straight line within error, then a precise age is defined because this is only possible if each is a closed system and each has the same initial ratio and age. The uncertainty in determining the slope is reduced because it is defined by many points.
A second advantage of the method relates to the fact that under high-temperature conditions the daughter isotopes may escape from the host minerals.
Updated 8 January c Introduction In a related article on geologic ages Ages , we presented a chart with the various geologic eras and their ages. In a separate article Radiometric dating , we sketched in some technical detail how these dates are calculated using radiometric dating techniques. As we pointed out in these two articles, radiometric dates are based on known rates of radioactivity, a phenomenon that is rooted in fundamental laws of physics and follows simple mathematical formulas.
Dating schemes based on rates of radioactivity have been refined and scrutinized for several decades. The latest high-tech equipment permits reliable results to be obtained even with microscopic samples.
Scavengers and rotting normally remove all traces within weeks.